The probability that the observed value occurs under the conditions of the null model was smaller than 0.01, indicating that the niche overlap between the 2 Apodemus species was significantly higher than would be expected from the null model. (2017) showed that the acorn production in the previous year had a positive effect on the population abundance of A. speciosus , while that effect was much less for A. argenteus (see also … <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 78 0 R/Type/Page>> Therefore, a higher dependency of A. speciosus on Fagaceae species, and the diverse diet of A. argenteus are considered to be characteristic throughout Japan. In the past, the diets of Apodemus species have been assessed through direct observation of food items in feces or stomach contents under the microscope (Abe and Oya 1974; Mizushima and Yamada 1974; Tachibana et al. Sato, J. J., T. Kawakami, Y. Tasaka, M. Tamenishi, and Y. Yamaguchi. Because individual wood mice consumed 2 or more dietary items, the total number of occurrences exceeded the number of wood mice. Supplementary data are available at Journal of Mammalogy online. We used the QIAGEN multiplex PCR kit (QIAGEN, Tokyo, Japan) for the PCR reaction. Michal Andreas, Antonín Reiter, and Petr Benda "Dietary Composition, Resource Partitioning and Trophic Niche Overlap in Three Forest Foliage-Gleaning Bats in Central Europe," Acta Chiropterologica 14(2), 335-345, (1 January 2012). Two sympatric and congeneric species of wood mice (Rodentia: Muridae), the small Japanese wood mouse (Apodemus argenteus) and the large Japanese wood mouse (A. speciosus), occur throughout Japan. They also suggested that A. speciosus had a higher tolerance against noxious substances (tannins) in acorns of Quercus crispula than A. argenteus. 5G based on the occurrences data). false Invertebrates were most important in terms of frequency and volume, although reptiles, mammals and birds were also commonly identified. 2015; Supplementary Data SD1). Dietary niche partitioning appears to be seasonal; in the fall, partitioning breaks down to some degree, likely because food is so abundantly available, and both species consume a larger, overlapping array of acorns and arthropods. Niche breadth of each Apodemus species and niche overlap between them were assessed with the indicspecies package (De Cáceres et al. Monthly difference of dietary profiles of Apodemus argenteus (Aar) and A. speciosus (Asp) based on the proportion of the binary occurrence data (upper) and the proportion of the number of reads obtained from the analyses of the Ion PGM next generation sequencer (lower). Altschul, S. F., W.Gish, W.Miller, E. W.Myers, and D. J. Lipman. Kiyomizu, Fukuoka Pref. 2007; Onodera et al. www.pnas.org Oleaceae species (assumed to be Fraxinus mandshurica) were consumed by A. argenteus from June to August, and by A. speciosus from August to October. Thus, we found mixed support for behavioral niche partitioning. Forty-three individuals of A. argenteus and 49 of A. speciosus were captured, and feces were sampled from each individual. These findings coupled with other studies on habitat niche partitioning present a clearer picture of how these 2 sympatric species can coexist. To date, d13C values have been analyzed in fossil tooth enamel of many African hominin taxa, revealing high levels of inter-specific dietary diversity in the reli- ance on C4- and C3-plants (van der Merwe et al., 2008; Lee-Thorp et al., 2010, 2012). Conversely, both Apodemus species consumed species in the Ulmaceae (Ulmus sp.) When we encountered identical sequences with different lengths (due to a difference in the number of 1-bp repeats in a homopolymer, or the difference in the sequenced frame), we treated these sequences as identical (Supplementary Data SD4 and SD5) and as 1 food item in the diet of an individual. Therefore, we attributed oat and sunflower reads detected in this study to the baits for trapping. Seed-seed predator interactions of European beech, DNA metabarcoding illuminates dietary niche partitioning by African large herbivores, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, DNA barcodes for ecology, evolution, and conservation, Structure and stability in natural and randomly constructed competitive communities, DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents, Influence of phylogeny on fungal community assembly and ecosystem functioning, On the distribution and food habits of the murid rodents in agrosystems in Hokkaido, Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, Growth and development of the Japanese wood mouse (, The applicability of DNA barcoding for dietary analysis of sika deer, Different population responses of three sympatric rodent species to acorn masting—the role of tannin tolerance, Who is eating what: diet assessment using next generation sequencing, Diversity and dissimilarity coefficients: a united approach, High-throughput sequencing offers insight into mechanisms of resource partitioning in cryptic bat species, Effects of acorn masting on population dynamics of three forest-dwelling rodent species in Hokkaido, Japan, A reviews on the process of mammalian faunal assembly in Japan – insight from the molecular phylogenetics. Clarifying community structure and determining how species coexist are important for understanding the mechanisms promoting biodiversity at the species level. Dietary profiles of Apodemus argenteus (A) and A. speciosus (B) summarized based on plant families. 2015). in Tiliaceae, and Ulmus sp. The dietary niche, as one part of the isotopic niche, can be examined with high resolution using molecular techniques. Sixteen plant families were present in the diets of both mouse species, while 5 families (Apiaceae, Astraceae, Celastraceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae) were found only in the diet of A. argenteus, and 6 families only in the diet of A. speciosus (Apocynaceae, Araceae, Cannabaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Urticaeae). DNA barcoding is useful for assessing biodiversity by identifying taxa using genetic markers (Valentini et al. 2008). Supplementary Data SD3.—Obtained reads for each sequence and individual. Tooth wear analysis techniques (mesowear and microwear) are employed to analyze dietary traits in proboscideans, perissodactyls and artiodactyls from 33 Pleistocene localities in Britain. Using BLAST, we performed homology searches for the 51 sequences obtained. 1988), and show hoarding behavior of acorns before winter (Miyaki and Kikuzawa 1988; Sone et al. De León, L. F., J.Podos, T.Gardezi, A.Herrel, and A. P. Hendry. According to the competitive exclusion principle, when 2 similar species are limited by the same resource, competition will eventually exclude 1 from the community unless they are able to use resources differently (Hardin 1960). Coexistence of ecologically similar species is sustained by niche partitioning, a fundamental element of which is diet. The roles of morphological traits, resource variation and resource partitioning associated with the dietary niche expansion in the fish-eating bat Myotis pilosus. It is, however, also true that special carefulness is necessary for the quantitative interpretations of sequence reads (Deagle et al. %PDF-1.6 %���� Niche breadth based on the total diet (all seasons combined) of A. argenteus and A. speciosus was 0.458 and 0.443, respectively (95% credible interval [CI]: 0.455–0.462 for A. argenteus and 0.426–0.459 for A. speciosus). The number of reads may therefore be useful at detecting major food items, as Nakahara et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503283112 Niche overlap varied seasonally, with a corresponding seasonal change in the niche breadth of A. speciosus (Fig. Dietary niche partitioning among black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in a multiprey ecosystem Jerod A. Merkle, Jean L. Polfus, Jonathan J. Derbridge, and Kimberly S. Heinemeyer Abstract: Identifying mechanisms that promote coexistence of sympatric species is important for predicting ecological effects of anthropogenic change. endobj (1990) also suggested the horizontal and vertical microhabitat separation between these 2 species, where A. argenteus was more dependent on a habitat with more vegetation cover (deep litter layer and rich overstory), whereas A. speciosus preferred forest floors covered with herbs. a Numbers of reads assigned to the family. In this study, we compared the read data to the binary occurrence data at the plant family level and tried to capture the semiquantitative property of the dietary components. evidence on niche partitioning, dietary seasonality and potentially even fallback food consumption. doi:10.1073/pnas.1503283112 endobj We applied the conventional phenol–chloroform method (Sambrook and Russell 2001) to isolate genomic DNA from fecal samples that had been preserved in a −80°C freezer until DNA extraction. Key Terms. Niche partitioning is predicted to be greatest under low resource availability,when spe‐ cies focus on the resource they can best extract, which decreasesthe diversity of food items in their diets. Looking into the origin of reads, ca. However, the mechanism should be further tested with additional considerations: 1) In this study, most taxa were identified at only genus or family level. 4) The animal diets also must be examined, since we otherwise cannot exclude the possibility of depredation of herbivorous animals such as insects that the wood mouse consumed. This is partly because the information about DNA sequences for the consumed plant taxa is still insufficient in the global DNA database. Reproduction in the Japanese long-tailed field mouse, © 2018 American Society of Mammalogists, www.mammalogy.org, This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (, Innovations that changed Mammalogy: field fixation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Local trends in abundance of migratory bats across 20 years, Landscape-wide flight activity by wintering bats predictably follows pulses of warmth in the Midwestern United States, About the American Society of Mammalogists, https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 American Society of Mammalogists. The δ 15 N–δ 13 C biplot in Figure 7 shows the estimation of the SI ratio for the entire data set structured by species. The vertical axis indicates the number of reads obtained from the analyses of the Ion PGM next generation sequencer. We therefore removed all the reads corresponding to the bait species (oats and sunflowers), and ultimately used 8,766 and 6,489 non-bait reads for the dietary analyses of A. argenteus and A. speciosus, respectively (Supplementary Data SD3). Although they are congeneric, the divergence time between these 2 species was estimated to be quite old among the Japanese mammals, providing an example of the phylogenetic dispersion (ca. Among 8 detected sequences identified as the Poaceae species in the BLAST search, 4 sequences showed the highest similarity with the sequence of the oat, Avena sativa, that was used as a bait for trapping mice (30,219 and 17,428 reads for A. argenteus and A. speciosus, respectively; Supplementary Data SD3). Although niche partitioning has been examined extensively, newly developed molecular techniques bring the opportunity for finer-scale resolution of resource use. 10.1073/pnas.1503283112 endobj 2015-05-27 In the same study site, Saitoh et al. The average annual temperature is 3.5°C, while the difference between the warmest and coldest temperatures is quite large (more than 30°C in summer [the highest temperature was 34.1°C in July 1989] to less than −30°C in winter [the lowest temperature was −41.2°C in February 1978]). For A. speciosus, the only major family represented in the diet was the Fagaceae (see also Fig. We selected the P6 loop of the chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron (hereafter trnL) as a marker for detecting dietary plant species, which has an appropriate feature for the DNA meta-barcoding of fecal samples in terms of the abundant reference sequences in the DNA database and the utility of its short target fragment for possibly degraded DNA samples (Pompanon et al. 2007). 2021-01-08T19:18:22-08:00 2015). In the final step to determine the dietary taxon for each obtained sequence, we performed a BLAST search (Altschul et al. These empirical results corroborate that competitive interactions and the degree of specialisation may strongly shape the success of introductions of top-predators in freshwater … The vertical axis indicates the number of occurrences that wood mice consumed the plant taxa identified. Tall tree species made up 64% (83/130) and 57% (40/70) of the total representation in the diets of A. argenteus and A. speciosus, respectively (based on a binary count of occurrence; Supplementary Data SD4 and SD5). Details. d Species or genus in the same family exclusively existing in the study area are shown. 2015-05-27T09:58:41+05:30 An advantage of the NGS meta-barcoding analysis compared with traditional methods lies in the higher sensitivity for the detection of minor dietary components. 2013). Therefore, further information about a local floral DNA database in the study site will enable finer species identification (e.g., see Nakahara et al. Our study indicated that A. speciosus were more dependent on Fagaceae plants than A. argenteus (Figs. Niche partitioning facilitates species coexistence in a world of limited resources, thereby enriching biodiversity. Watch the Niche Partitioning clip and then complete the following table to describe the remaining examples of niche partitioning. Seven of 51 sequences matched to more than 1 genus in different families, and we selected the most likely candidate family where more than 95% of the BLAST top-hit sequences supported that family (Supplementary Data SD2). Therefore, cow has to compromise from her body for the nutrients to achieve peak milk yield during early lactation. Cryptobenthic reef fishes account for approximately half of all reef fish species and are an abundant and important group on coral reefs worldwide. Seeds of the Fraxinus species are rich in phenolic compounds (Jensen 1985), which include tannins as a subclass. (2015) also demonstrated niche segregation of sympatric large mammalian herbivores in the African savanna with fine-scale identification of species in the diet. Trophic Structure and Dietary Niche Partitioning Using Stable Isotope Analysis. Indeed, A. argenteus has a broader vertical spatial niche (Abe 1986). 5) More distantly related species occupying the similar trophic niche also should be investigated for further understandings of the coexistence system of the 2 Apodemus species. The 2 species showed a relatively large degree of niche overlap in plant dietary profiles, feeding mostly on acorn-producing Fagaceae species (assumed to be Quercus crispula). List of plant taxa identified in the diets of 2 Apodemus species in this study. We used the software Claident (Tanabe and Toju 2013) for assigning obtained sequences to each individual of the Apodemus species according to the MID tag and cleaning up the sequence data obtained from Ion PGM sequencing by excluding low-quality sequences (minor sequences or those that were too short; minqual = 20, minlen = 50 in the Claident) and chimeric sequences. Dietary partitioning is not the mechanism allowing these congeneric varanid lizards to … Pgm reads both showed seasonal changes in the dietary niche overlap and segregation, and the. A model species to assess forest fragmentations and island isolation ( Sato et al promote... Blast, we followed methods in Taberlet et al otherwise had an identical sequence 100-m lines in season... Length and otherwise had an identical sequence taxon for each sequence and.. Taxon for each sequence and individual been used as a model species to assess forest fragmentations island... 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